OOP Concept – Encapsulation


Encapsulation allows an object to separate its interface from its implementation. The data and the implementation code for the object are hidden behind its interface.

Encapsulation hides internal implementation details from users.

A Customer may issue a check and now know how it is processed. The internal processing is hidden from the customer. Similary, the inessential attributes of a class are hidden from users by using encapsulation. The hidden attributes of a class are called protected attributes.

It ensures that an object supplies only the requested information to another object and hides inessential information.

Example: When a user selects a command from a menu in an application, the code used to perform the actions of that command is hidden from the user.

Encapsulation packages the data and method of an object and provides protection from external tampering by users. It implies that there is visibility to the functionalities offered by an object, and no visibility to its data. The best application of encapsulation is making the data fields private and using public accessor methods.

However, you cannot hide an entire object. To use an object, a part of it needs to be accessed by users. To provide this access, abstraction is used. Abstraction provides access to a specific part of data while encapsulation hides the data. Therefore, abstraction and encapsulation compliment each other.

In OOP, abstraction defines the conceptual boundaries of an object. These boundaries distinguish an object from another objects.

Example: When a user designs an application by using existing templates, the complexity of the template is hidden from the user, but the essential features for creating the application are provided to the user. Abstraction enables an object to display these essential features to develop an application.

Encapsulation and Inheritance are two key concepts in OOP that serve different purposes. While encapsulation hides inessential information, inheritance allows the object of a class to adopt the attributes of another class.

When you implement inheritance in an application, the classes in the application are arranged in a strict hierarchy. The classes at the lower levels inherit the attributes of the classes at the higher levels.

In addition to inheriting the characteristics of the parent class, a class may have its own attributes. This feature implies that the code and characteristics of a class are reusable and extensible. However, inheritance compromises encapsulation because a subclass can directly access the parent’s protected attributes without using operations.

Related Post: Introduction to OOP | Inheritance | Polymorphism

45 responses to “OOP Concept – Encapsulation

  1. Good Job.
    concepts are very clearly explained

  2. Excellent material

  3. simply good

  4. Learnable for the Beginners

  5. Very nice materials about OOPS

  6. good.
    Nice and clear cut explanation

  7. Mohammed Suleman


  8. Kumaresh Babu v c

    very nice.easy to understand.if i would have seen this a day before i would have answered clearly in a technical round.Anyway nice..

  9. The difference b/w encapsulation and abstraction are explained very clearly..

    Useful for Freshers to face interview.

    Nice work!!

  10. The difference b/w encapsulation and abstraction are explained very clearly..

    Useful for Freshers to face interview.

    Nice work!!!

  11. examples are nice.

  12. Really examples are very good…

  13. hey excellent !!!!!!!!
    I was lookin for very easy def for encapsulation n abstraction… thanks @

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  15. very useful….gud explanation……….

  16. good and veryuseful

  17. raghavendra

    Useful for Freshers to face interview.

    great …..

  18. So , admirable
    Very nice explanation and gud examples given.

  19. thx for the article it really helped me

  20. “Two thumbs up!”

  21. Syed hasan imam

    excellent and meaningful.

  22. nice

    will plz give me C AND C++ interview ques, and ans for that ques and also complete theory of C and C++

  23. Mohammad Danish

    can anyone here give an example code it will help me a lot…….!

  24. That’s just superb!

  25. please explain with code examples also…

  26. good description, i will apply it in the fill i will work on

  27. very very good… and example are very nice….

  28. This is good material for OOP

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  30. plzzzz add program also…..

  31. Very clear. Thanks for it!

  32. i m satisfied…. thnx….thnx a lot…!!!!!…:):))))))

  33. What?s Taking place i am new to this, I stumbled upon this I have discovered It positively useful and it has aided me out loads. I am hoping to contribute & assist other customers like its aided me. Good job.

  34. Great points altogether, you simply won a emblem new reader. What may you recommend in regards to your put up that you simply made some days in the past? Any certain?

  35. thank you very much very use full information …

  36. clear explanation.

  37. well explained, thank you

  38. one example of encapsulation

  39. Thimira Bogahawaththa

    It’s nice lesson I understood what is encapsulation.
    Thank You

  40. fuck you……this is great,thanx alot.

  41. very nice…clear explanation….thank u

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  43. OOP is hard to grasp but very easy to use once you get hand of it

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